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Section Use of English



Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

There is growing interest in East Japan Railway Co. ltd., one of the six companies, created out of the privatized national railway system. In an industry lacking exciting growth__1__, its plan to use real-estate assets in and around train stations__2__is drawing interest.

In a plan called Station Renaissance that it__3__in November, JR East said that it would__4__using its commercial spaces for shops and restaurants, extending them to__5__more suitable for the information age. It wants train stations as pick-up__6__for such goods as books, flowers and groceries__7__over the Internet. In a country where city__8__depend heavily on trains__9__commuting, about 16 million people a day go to its train stations anyway, the company __10__. So, picking up commodities at train stations__11__consumers extra travel and missed home deliveries. JR East already has been using its station__12__stores for this purpose, but it plans to create__13__spaces for the delivery of Internet goods.

The company also plans to introduce __14__cards—known in Japan as IC cards because they use integrated circuit for__15__information__16__ train tickets and commuter passes__17__the magnetic ones used today, integrating them into a/an __18__pass. This will save the company money, because__19__for IC cards are much less expensive than magnetic systems. Increased use of IC cards should also__20__the space needed for ticket vending.

1.Aperspectives     Boutlooks              Cprospects        Dspectacles

2.Acreatively      Boriginally             Cauthentically    Dinitially

3.Adisplayed          Bdemonstrated       Cembarked        Dunveiled

4.Ago beyond     Bset out                 Ccome around          Dspread over

5.Aapplications      Benterprises           Cfunctions         Dperformances

6.Adistricts           Bvicinities              Cresorts            Dlocations

7.Aacquired           Bpurchased            Cpresided          Dattained

8.Alodgers            Btenants                Cdwellers          Dboarders

9.Afor                  Bin                        Cof                   Das

10.Afigures           Bexhibits            Cconvinces        Dspeculates

11.Adeprives         Bretrieves              Cspares             Dexempts

12.Aconjunction    Bconvenience      Cdepartment      Dornament

13.Adelegated     Bdesignated           Cdevoted           Ddedicated

14.Aclever            Bsmart                  Cingenious         Dintelligent

15.Achecking     Bgathering            Cholding         Daccommodating

16.Aas                  Bfor                   Cwith                Dof

17.Abut for           Bas well as            Cinstead of        Dmore than

18.Aunique            Bsingle                  Cunitary            Donly

19.Adevices          Binstruments          Creaders             Dexaminers

20.Areduce           Bnarrow                Cdwarf                 Dshrink



1.C         2.A         3.D         4.A         5.C         6.D         7.B       8.C         9.A       10.A

11.C       12.B        13.D              14.B        15.C              16.A              17.C              18.B  19.C    20.A






1.[精解] 本题考查名词的词义辨析。空格处填入的名词与growth搭配,由上下文语义可知,此处表达的含义是“铁路业没有令人振奋的发展前景”,Prospect“景色,前景,期望”指的是possibility of advancement or success。所以[C]项正确。perspective做可数名词时多指viewpoint(态度,观点),如You have the wrong perspective on this situation(对于那个情势的未来发展,你的看法是错的)。outlook用作“前景”讲时用单数形式,如the outlook for economic growth(经济发展的前景)。spectacle“景象,奇观,场面,眼镜”,如A quarrel between drunken women is an unpleasant spectacle(喝醉酒的女人吵架是个丑恶的场面)。

2.[精解] 本题考查通过上下文选择适当的副词的能力。空格处的副词修饰的动作是use real-estate assets in and around train stations(利用车站内部及周围的房地产)。由上下文可知,该举动是有创造性的,所以才会引起人们的关注,因此[A]项creatively“创造性地”正确。originally“最初,原先 ,新颖地”,The apartment was decorated quite originally(这套公寓装饰的十分别致);authentically“确实地,真正地,逼真地”,其形容词形式为authentic,如 DiMaggio was an authentic folk hero(迪马乔是一位真正的民间英雄);initially“最初,开头”,如His response was initially adamant(他的反应开始很强硬)。

3.[精解] 本题考查动词词义的辨析。由语法知识可知,空格前的it指代的是主语JR East(东日本铁路),所填动词表示的是该公司对“Station Renaissance”这一计划发出的动作。[C]项embarked“着手,从事”是不及物动词,常用于embark on/upon sth.,如 He has embarked on a new career(他开始了一种新的职业生涯),embark on a new plan意为“着手一项新的计划”。[A]项displayed指把物品展示给人们看, display a plan意为“展示一张设计图”; B]项demonstrated“示范,证明”与plan搭配,指通过具体演示来说明计划的可行性,均不符合文意。[D]项unveiled“揭露,公布”正确,原文意为:东日本铁路有限公司在11月份公布的“车站复兴”计划中说……。

4.[精解] 本题考查动词短语的辨析。空格处填入的动词短语与using its commercial spaces for shops and restaurants搭配,应符合文意。首先[B]、[C]两项的用法分别为set out to do sth.“打算、试图做某事”,如He failed in what he had set out to do(他没有做到自己原来想做的事);come around to sth.“平息,苏醒,改变观点、立场”,如It will take him a while to come around to the idea(他需要时间来接受这个观点),可排除。[D]项指时间上的扩展,如The economic unrest spread over several years(经济的动荡不安延续了数年之久),不符合文意。[A]项go beyond“不止,超出”与状语extending them to呼应,意为“不仅把它的商业空地用于开商店和餐馆,而且还……”。

5.[精解] 本题考查名词词义的辨析。空格处填入的名词充当extending them to结构中的介词宾语,其中extend...to...意为“扩展……用于……”,them指上文中的its commercial spaces(东日本铁路的商业空地)。因此,所填的名词应与前文一致,表达这些空地的用处或功能,应与use的名词形式usage属同一范畴。 A]、[C]项都有“使用”的意思,但application常与“科技成果、理论、法规”等搭配,强调它们的实际应用,一般不与spaces搭配,如 The new invention would have a wide range of applications in industry(这项新发明会在工业上获得广泛应用),[C]项functions“功能,作用”正确,即“还要把这些商业空地用于更加适应信息时代的功能上”。enterprise“企业,事业,计划”;performance“履行,执行,性能”。

6.[精解] 本题考查名词词义的辨析。空格处填入的名词作pick-up(物品收取)修饰的中心名词,说明东日本铁路公司想把车站作为物品收取的什么。district指有一定特色的区域、地区,如rural/mountainous/financial/theatre district;或行政区域,如election/school/postal districtvicinity“临近地区,附近”,常用单数,如the inhabitants of the vicinity(附近地区的居民)。resort“旅游、度假胜地”,如seaside/beach/ski resortLocation泛指某个地点,与文中pick-up搭配,意为:物品收取地,符合文意。

7.[精解] 本题考查动词词义的辨析。空格处填入的过去分词与over the Internet搭配,作定语修饰such goods as books, flowers and groceries。由其中心语goods可知文章所讲的是网上购物,所以[B]项purchase“买,购买”正确,即“东日本铁路打算把车站作为网上所购物品的收取地”。[A]项acquire“获得”,虽然也可以表示“购得”,如The company has just acquired new premises(公司刚购得新办公楼),但它强调“得到”的结果,但该处顾客应该还没有得到货物,所以不正确。 Cpreside常与over搭配,意为“主持,主管”,接的宾语为“会议、活动、事件、机构”等,如preside over the meeting/the business.主持会议/主管业务。[D]项attain“达到,(经过努力)获得”也是强调“得到”,不正确。

8.[精解] 本题考查名词的辨析。由上下文可知,该处应泛指城市人,所以[C]项city dwellers“城市居民”符合文意。 A]项logers“寄宿者”,B]项tenants“承租人,房客 ”,[D]项boarders“寄膳宿者,寄宿生”,都具体到以某种特殊方式居住的人,不合文意。

9.[精解] 本题考查介词的用法。depend on sb/sth for sth是习惯搭配,意为:依靠……来做……,符合文意,原文意为:都市人严重依赖列车作为上下班的交通工具。depend on sth as sth意为:依靠……作为……,但as后通常接名词,如 We depended on E-mail as the only way of communication when she was abroad(她出国时我们依靠邮件作为惟一的通讯方式)。in“在……期间,从事于”,of“……的(表所属)”。

10.[精解] 本题考查动词词义的辨析。空格处填入的动词作谓语,表明铁路公司对about 16 million people a day go to its train stations anyway(无论如何,每天大约一千六百万人来到它的车站)发出的动作。参考选项,该句所述内容应是该公司“计算或估计”的,[A]项figures正确。[B]项exhibits意为“展示(物品)”,与上下文文意不符。[C]项convinces“使确信,使信服”,后面接人,如We convinced Anne(我们说服了安妮),如果要接事,应改为is convinced。[D]项speculates指“没有确切证据的推测、估计”,在这里不符合文意;

11.[精解] 本题考查动词词义的辨析。空格处填入的动词与consumers extra travel and missed home deliveries搭配。所填动词首先要能接双宾语,即使用sb. sth.的结构,其次搭配后的含义要符合文意。[A]项“剥夺,使丧失”的搭配为deprive sb. of sth.,如deprived him of sleep(使他不能入睡);[B]项“重新得到,找回,挽回”的搭配是retrieve sth. from sb.retrieve my bag from him(从他那找回我的包);[D]项“免除,豁免”的搭配为exempt sb from sth.,如exempt him from military service(免服兵役)。只有[C]项的搭配为spare sb. fromsth.,意为“使某人免于做某事”,如spare his mother any anxiety(不让母亲有丝毫的担忧),原文意为:在车站收取物品使消费者节省了路途而且也不像往家里递送那样容易丢失。

12.[精解] 本题考查习惯搭配。[A]项conjunction不与store搭配,它常指“(引起某种结果的事物等的)结合”,如The conjunction of low inflation and low employment came as a very pleasant surprise(低通货膨胀和低失业率的同时出现是一个大惊喜)。考生不要望文生义, “连锁店”是chain storeconvenience store指“便利店”,department store “百货店”,ornament store指“饰品店”,根据常识,车站里面比较普遍的是各式各样的便利店,所以[B]项符合文意。

 13.[精解] 本题考查形近词的辨析。本题表面上是填入合适的过去分词做定语,实际上是辨析四个核心动词的用法。[A]项delegate搭配事物时意为“授权,委任,委托”,如delegate a task /power(委托任务/授权),因此它不与spaces搭配。[B]项designated spaces意为“指定的场地”,但与上文的create搭配后语义重复。[C]项devoted“投入的,深爱的”,表感情色彩,显然不符文意。[D]项dedicatedspaces搭配表示“专用的空间/场地”。

14.[精解] 本题考查形容词的辨析及固定用法。[B]项smart card 是固定搭配,意为:(内有集成电路可储存记忆的)智能卡。四个选项都可含有“聪明的”含义,但当修饰事物时,[A]项“机敏的,巧妙的”,强调“用智慧或小聪明达到目的”,如a clever reply(机敏的回答),play a clever trick(耍一个巧妙的花招);[C]项指“(机器等)制作精巧的” 或“(方法等)巧妙的”,如an ingenious toy(制作精巧的玩具),an ingenious idea/lie(巧妙的主意/谎言);[D]项Intelligent指“(计算机部件工作性能)智能的”,如an intelligent terminal (智能终端,即具有处理信息能力的终端)。

15.[精解] 本题考查动词词义的辨析。题目要求填入一个动名词与information搭配,说明集成电路在IC 卡中的作用。IC卡,即智能卡,内部的集成电路是储存信息的,所以[C]项holding“容纳,储存,准备着”正确。check information“核对信息”, gather information“收集信息”,accommodate information“整理信息”,都不符合文意。

16.[精解] 本题考查介词的用法。解题难点在于理清空格所在句子的结构,该句子的主干为the company plans to introduce cards... __16__ train tickets and commuter passes,所填介词与introduce搭配,[A]项as表方式,符合文意,introduce sth as sth(引入……作为……),原文意为“引入智能卡作为车票和定期券”。for表目的、用途,Introduce sth for sth意为“为……而引入、提出……”,如introduce a topic for discussion(提出议题供讨论);with表伴随 introduce sth with sth意为“把……作为……的开头,用……引出……”,如introduce a talk with an anecdote(说一则轶闻作为讲话的引子),均不符合文意。of表所属,不直接跟introduce搭配。

17.[精解] 本题考查句内逻辑关系。空格处填入的介词短语连接smart cards as train tickets and commuter passes(作为车票和定期券的智能卡)和the magnetic ones used today(现在使用的磁卡)。由于两者是同一性质的物质,因此排除表假设逻辑关系的[A]项but for“要不是”。此外,根据下文可知用智能卡比现在使用的磁卡系统成本要低,因此引用智能卡的目的是使它取代磁卡作车票和定期券,因此[Cinstead of项“代替,而不是……”正确。[Bas well as项“也,又,和”表并列,[Dmore than项“比……多”表比较。

18.[精解] 本题考查形容词的词义辨析。填入的形容词修饰pass。原文意为:把多种形式的票和券合为一张智能卡,[B]项“单一的,专一的”,有把不同的东西统一标准或合为一体的意思,如a single scale of wages(单一工资等级),是正确选项。[A]项“独一无二的,独特的”,强调独特性,意为being the only one of its kind,如the unique human ability(人类独有的能力);[C]项“整体的,统一的,不可分的”,强调完整性,指relating to or existing as a single unit,如 a unitary policy of government(政府的统一政策);[D]项“惟一的,单独的”,强调某种情况下的惟一性,指there is one person, thing, or group in a particular situation and no others,如I was the only one who disagreed(我是惟一一个持不同意见的人)

19.[精解] 本题考查名词词义的辨析。空格填入的名词与for IC cards 搭配,与magnetic systems(磁系统)作比较。首先排除[D]项examiners“主考者,检查人”,因为人和系统之间无法比较价格高低。[A]项“装置,设备”、[B]项“工具,手段”的用法为device/instrument for doing sth,如a device for opening bottles(一个打开瓶子的装置);an instrument for writing(书写工具)。所以[C]项readers正确,意为:IC卡或智能卡的读卡机。

20.[精解] 本题考查动词词义的辨析。填入的动词,表达Increased use of IC cards(对IC卡使用的增加)对 the space needed for ticket vending (售票需要的空间)的影响。根据上文可知道,IC卡的使用替代了传统的车票和定期券,因此空格所在句子的含义是:IC卡使用的增加减少了售票所占的空间。关键看四个选项哪个与space搭配,符合文意。[A]项reduce“减少,缩小”,用法较为广泛,除表示数量、大小、价格等的减少外,还可以接表抽象含义的词,如reduce the risk of detection(减少被发现的危险),原文意为:对IC卡使用的增加将会减少售票占用的空间。[B]项narrow“使变狭窄,使缩小”与space搭配,指“使空间变得狭小”,有“拥挤”的含义;[C]项dwarf指“(通过与大的事物比较)使显得小”,而实际大小没有改变,如Most professional basketball players dwarf other men(大多数职业篮球运动员使别人显得矮小);[D]项shrink意为“使事物本身缩小或萎缩”,如shrink the markets for the exports(使出口市场萎缩),均不符合文意。







Section Reading Comprehension


Part A


Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text 1

 I’ve never met a human worth cloning, says cloning expert Mark Westhusin from the cramped confines of his lab at Texas A&M University. It’s a stupid endeavor. That’s an interesting choice of adjective, coming from a man who has spent millions of dollars trying to clone a 13-year-old dog named Missy. So far, he and his team have not succeeded, though they have cloned two calves and expect to clone a cat soon. They just might succeed in cloning Missy later this yearor perhaps not for another five years. It seems the reproductive system of man’s best friend is one of the mysteries of modern science.

Westhusin’s experience with cloning animals leaves him vexed by all this talk of human cloning. In three years of work on the Missyplicity project, using hundreds upon hundreds of canine eggs, the A&M team has produced only a dozen or so embryos carrying Missy’s DNA. None have survived the transfer to a surrogate mother. The wastage of eggs and the many spontaneously aborted fetuses may be acceptable when you’re dealing with cats or bulls, he argues, but not with humans. Cloning is incredibly inefficient, and also dangerous,” he says.

Even so, dog cloning is a commercial opportunity, with a nice research payoff. Ever since Dolly the sheep was cloned in 1997, Westhusin’s phone at A&M College of Veterinary Medicine  has been ringing busily. Cost is no obstacle for customers like Missy’s mysterious owner, who wishes to remain unknown to protect his privacy. He’s plopped down $3.7 million so far to fund  the research because he wants a twin to carry on Missy’s fine qualities after she dies. But he knows her clone may not have her temperament. In a statement of purpose, Missy’s owners and the A&M team say they are both looking forward to studying the ways that her clone differs from Missy.

The fate of the dog samples will depend on Westhusin’s work. He knows that even if he gets a dog viably pregnant, the offspring, should they survive, will face the problems shown at  birth by other cloned animals: abnormalities like immature lungs and heart and weight problems. Why would you ever want to clone humans, Westhusin asks, when we’re not even close to getting it worked out in animals yet?

1. Which of the following best represents Mr. Westhusin’s attitude toward cloning?

A Animal cloning is a stupid attempt.

B Human cloning is not yet close to getting it worked out.

C Cloning is too inefficient and should be stopped.

D Animals cloning yes, and human cloning at least not now.

2. The Missyplicity project does not seem very successful probably because _____.

A there isn’t enough fund to support the research

B cloning dogs is more complicated than cloning cats and bulls

C Mr. Westhusin is too busy taking care of the business

D the owner is asking for an exact copy of his pet

3. When Mr. Westhusin says “... cloning is dangerous,” he implies that _____.

A lab technicians may be affected by chemicals

B cats and dogs in the lab may die of diseases

C experiments may waste lots of lives

D cloned animals could outlive the natural ones

4. We can infer from the third paragraph that _____.

A rich people are more interested in cloning humans than animals

B cloning of animal pets is becoming a prosperous industry

C there is no distinction between a cloned and a natural dog

D Missy’s master pays a lot in a hope to revive the dog

5. We may conclude from the text that _____.

A human cloning will not succeed unless the technique is more efficient

B scientists are optimistic about cloning technique

C many people are against the idea of human cloning

D cloned animals are more favored by owners even if they are weaker



1. D              2.B         3.C         4.B         5.A











A 克隆动物是一种愚蠢的尝试。

B 克隆人还没有接近成功。

C 克隆的效率太低,应该被禁止。

D 克隆动物可以,克隆人至少现在还不行。

[精解] 本题考查考生文中人物观点。文中多次引用了威斯苏森先生有关克隆的话,从中我们可以判断出他的态度。[A]中a stupid attempt出现在文章开始部分,是他对于克隆人而非克隆动物的看法。[B]中not yet close to getting it worked out出现在文章末句,是他对待动物实验的看法,不包括克隆人。事实上,克隆人还没有开始,谈不上是否接近成功。第二段末句,威斯苏森先生提到克隆是极其低效的,但没有提出因此就应该被禁止。因此,[C]部分错误。第二段倒数第二句,威斯苏森先生提出,动物实验中对动物卵的浪费以及动物的自然性流产还可以接受,但研究人就不行。可见,他默许克隆动物,反对克隆人,因此[D]正确。

2. 克隆密斯项目似乎不是非常成功,原因可能是_____

A 没有足够的资金支持这项研究

B 克隆狗比克隆猫或牛更复杂

C 威斯苏森先生太忙于照料生意

D 狗的主人要求和他的宠物一模一样的复制品

[精解] 本题考查事实细节。第一段倒数第二句指出,克隆密斯可能成功也可能失败。该段最后一句解释其原因是:狗的生殖系统似乎是现代科学中一个神秘的领域。因此[B]为正确项。


3. 当威斯苏森先生说“克隆是危险的”,他的意思是______

A 实验室的技术员可能会受到化学物质的感染

B 实验室里的猫和狗可能死于疾病

C 实验会浪费很多生命

D 克隆的动物比一般的动物能活得更长

[精解] 本题考查句意的理解。题干引用的话出现在第二段末。其上文即该段倒数第二句中,威斯苏森先生指出,在猫或牛的克隆试验中,对动物卵的浪费以及许多动物的自然性流产都可以接受,但是克隆人就不行。因此可知,[C]是“危险”的真正含义。其他项文中都未提及。

4. 从第三段我们可以推知______

A 富人对克隆人比对克隆动物更感兴趣

B 克隆动物宠物正成为一个欣欣向荣的产业

C 克隆狗和一般的狗之间没有什么区别

D 密斯的主人出重金希望狗能复活

[精解] 本题考查推理引申。第三段首句提到,克隆狗是能带来丰厚科研报酬的商机。下文无论是提到动医学院频繁接到的电话,还是举出一掷千金想克隆爱犬的富人的例子都是为了说明首句的观点。因此从第三段可推出的结论是[B]。


5. 从文章中我们可以得知________

A 除非技术效率提高否则克隆人类不会成功

B 科学家们对克隆技术持乐观态度

C 许多人反对克隆人的想法

D 克隆的动物即使弱小也更受主人青睐

[精解] 本题考查全局事实细节题。文章一开始就引用专家威斯苏森的话,指出克隆人是愚蠢的尝试。第二段最后两句提到,克隆实验的低效性和危险性在克隆人中不可接受。文章末尾再次引用该专家的话,指出现在动物的研究还没成功,没有必要想到克隆人。由此可见,技术是克隆实验存在的主要问题,也是阻碍克隆人实验的重要原因,因此可推知[A]正确。[B]明显错误,科学家并不乐观。全文只涉及专家和拥护克隆实验的人的观点,因此无从推知[C]。[D]在文中未提及。



(1)cramped(a.) 狭窄的,狭小的,如working in ~ conditions(在拥挤的环境里工作)

(2)confinesn. pl.)范围,界限,边界,如the ~ of human knowledge(人类的知识范围),the ~ of family life(家庭生活的范围)

(3)vexed (a.) 焦急的,为难的,恼怒的


(5)canine (a.) 犬的,犬科的

(6)surrogate mother代理母体

(7)aborted (a.) 流产的;出故障的

(8)fetus (n.) 胎,胎儿

(9)veterinary (a.)兽医的,~ medicine/science兽医学

(10)plopv.)扑通一声把……放下,如Can you ~ some ice in my drink?(能在我的饮料中放点冰块吗?)(文中是比喻用法,指“投入资金”)

(11)viably (ad.) 可实施地,切实可行地;能独立生存地,能独立发展地

(12)abnormality (n.)变态,畸形,异常



 “我还没有遇到一个值得被克隆的人, 克隆专家马克·威斯苏森在德克萨斯州农业机械大学空间狭小的实验室里说,“那是一种愚蠢的尝试。”这种风趣的用来形容克隆人的言辞来自一位富人,他花费数百万美金试图克隆一只13岁的名叫密斯的狗。到目前为止,他和他的团队还没有获得成功,尽管他们已经克隆出了两只牛并且正计划在短期内克隆出一只猫。他们可能会在年底成功克隆出密斯,也可能再过五年都不会成功。人类最亲密的朋友——狗的生殖系统似乎是现代科学中一个神秘的领域。






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